TSWV has a very wide host range, and the only thrips that transmits the virus in a persistent way. to select for host plant resistance or tolerance . Female adult western flower thrips of different age were randomly collected with a small aspi- Because of its polyphagous feeding and breed-ing behavior, western flower thrips is exposed to a broad diversity of plant allelochemicals (Feyere-isen 1999). The female makes an incision into the leaf, stem or fruit of plants with her serrated ovipositor and deposits a single egg. On avocados, thrips can cause brown or silver scarring on the fruit. Chlorogenic acid is involved in host plant resistance to Western Flower Thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), one of the key agri- and horticultural pests worldwide. Western flower thrips prefer to feed on developing plant tissues, such as growing tips and flower buds. An infestation of Western Flower Thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), recently developed on young citrus trees in a greenhouse devoted to rearing Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Other thrips will attach the following host plants - annual asters, dahlias, gladioluses, lilies, tuberous begonias and wax begonias. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis P. (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major agricultural and horticulture pest worldwide (Kirk, 2002; Kirk and Terry, 2003).It causes damage and spoilage to a vast number of economically important plant species through feeding, oviposition and spread of several plant diseases, most notably tospoviruses (Morse and Hoddle, 2006). Western flower thrips have a broad host range of more than 500 species in 50 plant families and are associated with many cultivated crops and ornamentals. Western flower thrips also vector some potentially devastating diseases, such as Impatiens necrotic spot virus or Tomato spotted wilt virus . Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), forms a key agri‐ and horticultural pest worldwide. Plants were sampled primarily while in flower. Both viruses affect a wide range of plants, and often a single host plant may be infected by both viruses. This generally occurs in the compost or soil below the plant on which the larvae fed. The maxillae then ingest the fluids from the cells, but not directly from the vascular tissue. Western Flower Thrips. Thrips can feed on different parts of the plant; leaves, stems, flowers and fruits. Several species of thrips can infest greenhouse floral crops, but the most severe and common pest in recent years has been the western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis. Introduction . HOSTS. Hosts. The platform was used to establish host-plant preference of thrips with a large plant population of 345 wild Arabidopsis accessions (the Arabidopsis HapMap population) and the method was optimized with two extreme accessions from this population that differed in resistance to thrips. Feeding by these tiny insects causes plant cells to collapse, which may eventually result in distorted Small spider immatures (first and second instars) of several species were common on certain host plants, and are likely to feed on WFT. Both viruses affect a wide range of plants, and often a single host plant may be infected by both viruses. Carnations, chrysanthemums, gerberas, geraniums, marigolds, pansies, and roses are the major host plants. TSWV is a tospovirus spread by western flower thrips, onion thrips (see Fact Sheet no. WFT damage plants directly by feeding, and indirectly by acting as vectors for the tospoviruses impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The number of WFT on non-flowering plants was significantly lower than on flowering plants or single cut flowers. Successful IPM programmes for management of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, on UK strawberry crops have been developed using knowledge of its biology and behaviour (Bennison 117) and melon thrips (see Fact Sheet no. Western Flower Thrips John P. Sanderson Introduction. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), top, and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), bottom are typical thrips, none to easy to tell apar! This cosmopolitan and polyphagous invader is abundant in many field and greenhouse crops. Western flower thrips feeds on apple, apricot, peach, plum, nectarine, orange, lemon, alfalfa, potato and numerous weed species. Western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis continues to be a serious pest of floriculture crops in New England. Abstract. The egg is cylindrical and slightly kidney shaped. Damage: The western flower thrips feeds on the flowers and foliage by inserting its modified left mandible into the tissue, and sucking the fluids from cells. The second most abundant predators were spiders (Araneae). Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) develops from an active larval stage through to a non‐feeding, almost immobile, pre‐pupal and pupal stage. Damage. As these parts of the plant grow, they can become severely deformed. Crops attacked by this pest include beans, burdock (gobo), capsicum, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, onion, tomatoes and watermelon. Western flower thrips has a host range of hundreds of plant species, including many major commercial floriculture crops. Damage includes feeding scars and leaf distortion (see Figures 9 and 10). Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a native insect of the western part of North America that was first reported in 1895.In the 1970s and early 1980s, this species spread throughout North America (Beshear 1983). 1 INTRODUCTION. Volatiles collected by entrainment of a solvent extract of F. ulmaria were more attractive than was the original extract. 106); however, the western flower thrips is the more important vector. western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse-grown crops. Photo: Thrips: www.gardentech.com Thrips are tiny insects that are mainly active at night. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important invasive pest that damages a range of horticultural and agronomic crops worldwide (Reitz 2009, Mouden et al. The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) is the most important vector for both tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV). Unfortunately, there is little basic ecophysiology information on the response of western flower thrips to host plant chemistry. Onion thrips and western flower thrips are found widely throughout New Zealand on a broad range of crops. Management. Heavily infested flower buds may not open at all, and fruit can be damaged, even with low thrips populations. The western flower thrips were originally from the western US, but began to spread in the 1960s and are now a global pest. Large numbers of young flush leaves were killed which negatively impacted ACP, as ACP is dependent on flush for oviposition and nymph development. As a result, you typically see the damage they cause well before seeing the insects themselves. α-Ionone decreased the number of eggs laid by female thrips on wild-type leaves (Figure 4; p < 0.005, t = 2.56, df = 18). Western flower thrips, the primary thrips species encountered by greenhouse producers, is extremely polyphagous, feeding on a wide-variety of horticultural crops grown in both commercial and research greenhouses. To avoid misunderstand-ings and misinterpretations, it is clear that the term “host plant” must be applied in the proper context. Western flower thrips has a punching-sucking feeding habit, using the mandible to punch a hole into the host and then inserting the maxillae into the opening. Host plant resistance to western flower thrips (WFT) in chrysanthemum was studied in several stages of plant development. One hundred thirty species of native and introduced plants growing in uncultivated land adjacent to apple and pear orchards of central Washington and northern Oregon were sampled for the presence of the western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895) and potential thrips predators. western flower thrips. Distribution and host range. We confirmed whether α-ionone is effective for the combination of Arabidopsis and western flower thrips by releasing adult female thrips onto the leaf surface of wild-type (Col-0) plants that were treated with 300 μM α-ionone. This species of thrips is native to the Southwestern United States but has spread to other continents, including Europe, Australia (where it was identified in May 1993), and South America via transport of infested plant material. 2005). Western flower thrips will … occidentaliswas main-tained on potted, flowering plants of the susceptible chrysanthemum cultivar Sunny Cassa in a greenhouse at258 C and70% relative humidity. It was collected on 64 plant species, all of which were hosts for WFT. Rearing of Western Flower Thrips.A culture ofF. The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) is the most important vector for both tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV). The objective of this study was to investigate quantitative host plant resistance to thrips in carrot and to identify candidate compounds for constitutive resistance. Life stages Egg. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is a worldwide pest with a wide range of host plants, the main ones being vegetable crops such as sweet peppers, strawberries, melons, cucumbers, eggplant, beans and tomatoes, as well as field crops, flowers, fruit trees, citrus and many ornamental plants. Scarring on avocados. The western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] is an invasive pest insect in agriculture. On leaves thrips can ingest the cell contents of Host Plants: This thrips feeds on almost any flowering plant. Western flower thrips host plants include digitalis, tanacetums, lobelias, verbascums, stachys, and achilleas. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, feeds in a piercing sucking manner and is a worldwide pest on many ornamental and vegetable crops. Onion thrips is a key pest of onions, but will also attack the young growth of capsicum, cucumbers and the flowers of some flower crops. Western flower thrips can damage flowers, such as roses, with petal discoloration as a result of thrips feeding. Thrips palmi was first described by H. Karny in 1925 from specimens collected in 1921 on tobacco in Sumatra. Western flower thrips attack a wide range of plants including: carnations, chrysanthemums, corn, cotton, cucumbers, eggplants, gerberas, grapes, impatiens, melons, peaches, peanuts, peas, and peppers. The behavioural responses of adult female western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) to volatiles from meadow-sweet (Filipendula ulmaria), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) and sage (Salvia officinalis) were investigated in laboratory bioassays. Based on pesticide resistance studies, western flower thrips has various metabolic detoxification enzyme systems that could help it to overcome secondary plant defenses (Jensen 2000; Espinosa et al. Plant length and leaf area of non-flowering Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev were reduced after WFT infestation, and these two variables were correlated. Vascular tissue and flower buds may not open at all, and the only thrips transmits. 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